The Study of Urban Geography
Source: adapted from H. Carter (1995) The Study of Urban Geography, Fourth Edition, London: Arnold, p. 126.
- Differential accessibility. Some activities require specialized facilities such as port and rail terminals. For instance, the retailing sector demands maximum accessibility, which is often different from centrality offered in the CBD.
- Land use compatibility. Similar activities group together since proximity implies improved interactions through the process of economies of agglomeration. Service activities such as banks, insurance companies, shops and institutions are strongly interacting with each other. This can be defined as centripetal forces between activities.
- Land use incompatibility. Some activities are repelling each-other such as high quality residential and heavy industrial. This may be defined as centrifugal forces. This is one of the main reasons why poorer neighborhoods tend to be located on the eastern side, at least in industrial cities. Since in the northern hemisphere, prevailing winds tend to be westerlies, so eastern sections of an industrial city tended to have a higher level of exposure to industrial air pollution.
- Location suitability. Some activities cannot afford the rent of the optimal site for their location. They are thus locating at cheaper places, which are not optimal, but suitable for these activities.