الاثنين، 19 مارس، 2012

Abstract


The Great Socialist People's Arab Jamahiriyah

Al-Fateh UniversityCollege of Arts

Department of Geography

SABRATA: The Functional Construction and Building Outer Appearance

A Study in the Geography of Urban Building

A Thesis submitted by

Mohammad A. N. Al-Musawi

As a fullfilment for the requirements of a Ph.D. Degree in the Geography of Urban Building

Supervised by



Prof. Abdalla S. Omar

Prof. Emhemmad A. Mugeili
Geography of Cities

Geography of Climate
Head of the

Composer of Higher Studies
Department of Geography

In the Department of Geography
College of Arts

College of Arts
Al-Fateh University

Al-Fateh University

Tripoli

Abstract

Sabrata had been studied through its urban development stages, that are interrelated with the changes of the economic and social conditions there. 'Slow' is the best term describing the above-mentioned development till (1960) in a rate of (5.6%), which was due to the absence of any city planning or ad hoc urban development. In (2002), the urban development growth has increased to reach the rate of (39%).
          The rapid urbanism had reflected a kind of industrial evolution, which made the rural people immigrate to the cities, this has led to city-specific problems showing up even at the very heart of the city centre in negative forms of contradictions that may either merge or get prominent individuality from time to time. As an instance of that we can see the random residential sectors created by the violation of issuing building licenses to citizens, regardless to any pre-planning that considers the distribution of urban uses on the city land. However, the use of residential area has reached the rate of (28.7%), that rate is lower that the general average of the residential use inside the city, generally speaking, ranging from (30-40%) out of the urban area.
          The study of Sabrata city has adopted a sequential arrangement that stands for a coordinate style and an essential base for the study, for the problem of this study can be limited within a number of points. The most crucial of which can be seen in the fact that Sabrata city undergoes a random building process in its suburbs. This led to the loss of the agricultural features of wide fertile lands. The most outstanding characteristics of this city can be due to its position and location, within which a good amount of interaction has resulted indide an urban-rural area.
          The study aims at the identification of the constructional and functional situation of the city districts, and to refer to the violations of the planning standards and residential constructions. Moreover, the study intends to draw a picture of the internal construction of the city and its outer environment in order to figure out the exact image of land use, and to reach the territorial effect of the city by getting accurate facts about the interaction between it and the surrounding rural zone.
          Methodologically speaking, the study tried to uncover the building communities that can be seen, sometimes by their constructional features and planning violations, and other times by their organized ones in the far suburbs. All of which is to be stated as too hard to adopt a limited approach with, that is due to the lack of the available possibilities and information about the area understudy.
          The study has tackled the city map that looks closely like a quarter system of right angles, which is obviously seen in the city centre. Whereas in its suburbs, especially the rural marginal areas; that are not included in the planning originally, we can see the random unsystematic streets of an organic entity. Besides, the central area works are not in the final shape yet, which is due to the inter-uses of commercial, residential, and industrial aspects. It is clearly seen that the urban structure of the city is not well-wooven in most of its parts. The Arabic open architect can be noticed, and also the Western one; composed of one or double volumes. In addition to certain styles of popular houses, apartments, and villas; all of which can be restricted to four locations. Consequently, we have figured out a strong connection between the area of the dwelling place, the number of its floors and the type of the dwelling family.
          The area of the study has gone through urban planning during a number of successive years since the middle of the (1960's). That planning was dedicated to draw the urban features of the city map; in the form of an attempt to stop the random movement towards the empty places, then to make a kind of urban evolution. The researcher has put forward a number of hypotheses which he regards as well-serving factors in the study. Throughout the given statistical figures, we could verify the accuracy of the hypotheses saying that: The city has proved a rapid urban growth as a result of the natural increase of population, besides the increasing standards of immigration; all of which have led to the increase of its residents' number requiring, consequently, an increase in the space of the containing land. Regardless to the modern building movement and the high structures with the services offered by the city to its districts, all of which has made the city of a prominent urban characteristic. The study has also falsified the hypothesis saying that: The increase in population has been accompanied by an increase in the number of housing units as a result of urban development, on the contrary, the city still lacks the necessary housing units.
          The study has adopted a descriptive approach, firstly, by which we have reached the required fact through reports, bulletins, researches, references, and all the available sources. In addition to the employment of photographic pictures clarifying many places in the city. Secondly, an analytical approach, in which we had to depend upon a field study considerably. In this approach, we find a high level of accuracy in getting any ad hoc data; moreover, in this part of the study we had to use the detailed maps of the area for different periods of time. Herein, we can see the administrative boarders of the city indicating the urban developmental stages, specifically the ones related to the use of lands.
          The study included a random sample of (500) families from all the districts of Sabrata. This questionnaire referred to crucial concepts served the hypotheses and aims of the study. For it included (85) questions of comprehensive, clear and relevant features. Besides the use of statistical figures of ratio and Chi Square (χ2) in order to clarify the importance of the public services for the residents. Also, we had used the rate of Concentration of Residents (CR) to realize the relation between the numerical distribution of residents and the area, in addition to other averages serving the topic of the study at the end of which we reached a number of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions.


الأحد، 18 مارس، 2012

Urban geography

  Urban geography is the study of the site, evolution, morphology, spatial pattern, and classification of towns. Historically, three themes may be distinguished: the quantitative, descriptive approach, establishing the spatial organization of the city; the behavioural method, emphasizing the decision-making process within the perceived environment; and the radical tradition, which stresses not only the spatial inequalities within a city and the inequitable distribution of resources, but suggests strategies to remedy these inequalities. Some geographers look for diversity of the urban form, modelling urban morphologies associated with continents, or levels of economic development; others look for similarities, pointing out that urban poverty and inequality are found world-wide, and that only the extents are different. More recently, geographers have looked at social justice and the power relations within the city (D. Harvey 1996; R. Fincher and J. M. Jacobs (eds.) 1998).

    Currently, the city is perceived as a physical and metaphorical entity, bound into a coherent whole by symbols and structures. The city is a discourse; a place of interaction, connection, and disconnection, multiply linked not only with its catchment, but with other cities around the world (J. Allen, D. Massey, and Proke (eds.) 1999). For current developments in urban geography, see Moore et al., Area pp.35